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What is PSI?

Open your car's glove compartment, pull out your owner's manual, and look up “tires." You should find details including front and rear “PSI" listings. PSI stands for pounds per square inch. This number is determined by your vehicle's manufacturer, and it's how you can tell if your tires are properly inflated.PSI is based on your vehicle's:Total weight and size.Towing weight capability.Recommended tire size.It's important to note that you should always use the pressure recommended by your vehicle's manufacturer to ensure optimal vehicle performance. This means you need to ensure that your tires are appropriate for your vehicle, and that the PSI recommended for the tire matches what your vehicle's manufacturer recommends for your car.

How to Check Your Tire Pressure

How to Check Your Tire PressureChecking tire pressure is easy. You can do it right at home or at the gas station. Just be sure you check the pressure when your tires are cold, or haven't been driven in several hours. This will give you the most accurate reading.The most important piece of equipment you need is an accurate tire pressure gauge. You can find battery-operated digital gauges, or more traditional stick-type gauge found at most gas stations. A good gauge shouldn't set you back more than $15—a worthwhile investment for a longer life for your tires.Make sure you have your manufacturer's PSI handy when you're checking your tire pressure, and then follow these steps:Remove the end caps on your tires' air valves (don't lose them!).Place the tire pressure gauge into the valve stem and press down quickly to get a reading.Check the PSI reading. Compare that to your vehicle's recommended PSI.It can often be tricky to get the gauge to press fully onto the valve, resulting in an off reading—so take a few readings to eliminate any anomalies.If the reading is above the recommendation, push in the valve to let out some air (you might have to do this a few times to get it right).If the PSI reading is below the recommendation, fill your tire with air until you reach the ideal level (this may also take a few tries).In all, checking the air pressure on your tires should take just a few minutes and is well worth the savings and protection you'll gain!

When to Check Tire Pressure?

Even brand new tires with minimal wear and tear lose air constantly. Factors that can affect tire pressure include:Hot or cold temperatures.Driving distance.Towing or carrying added weight in your vehicle.Most tire and vehicle manufacturers recommend checking your tire's pressure each month, as they can lose multiple pounds of pressure within that time from simple daily use.In addition, it's important to check pressure as temperatures heat up. Tires react quickly to changes in temperature, and a rise in heat can cause rapid pressure loss.Leaky valve systems, low leaking punctures, and other often hidden damage can also decrease air pressure—all the more reason to check your tires regularly.

Why Is Tire Pressure Important?

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, under-inflated tires have a higher risk of damage and failure. Not only will they wear out faster if under-inflated, but faster deterioration can also lead to reduced control of your vehicle, tire blowouts, and crashes.In addition to safety, there's also an environmental and economic benefit to keeping your tires full of air. Gas mileage is reduced by .2% for every 1 PSI (pound per square inch) your tire pressure drops below the recommended level. By keeping your tires inflated to the proper pressure, you could save yourself up to 3% in gas mileage, depending on your vehicle and driving habits.Not only are you saving more money in reduced visits to the gas pump, but you're also ensuring our planet continues to grow and thrive for drivers of the future.

What the Signs that You Need New Tires?

By checking tire pressure once a month, you'll get a good idea how they are performing. If your tires are fairly new and continue to leak air, you should consult your dealer or mechanic. You may have a faulty valve or other damage that is difficult to detect... which could unfortunately result in the need to replace the tires completely. But with proactive maintenance, you could catch an issue before it becomes a problem, and just end up needing a small repair.For more suggestions to keep your car running its best, check out our library of Vehicle Maintenance Tips

How does thermometer work?

A thermometer is an instrument that is used to take the temperature readings of the atmosphere or of a system. The control and monitoring of various processes in the industries is essential to boost the productivity. The records of the temperature are also used in further analysis of the industrial processes. The Qualitywell thermometers are the ones that are commonly used in the industries mainly because they are durable and reliable. These thermometers are available in different types. You choose Qualitywell thermometers based on the industrial applications that you are carrying out.The liquid-in-glass thermometers are the most popular type. They work on the basis that liquids will expand when heated and contract on cooling. These thermometers are made of glass tubes with small bulbs at the bottom that contain the liquid. Mercury and alcohol are the two most commonly used liquids in these thermometers. They can be used to measure body temperatures. When the instrument comes into contact with the body the liquid inside the bulb heats up and starts to expand. The liquid climbs up the gauge and halts at a certain point, which indicates the temperature of the body. The bi-metal thermometer is another type thermometer that uses two metal strips. The metals that are used expand at different rates when the temperature is increased. They are fused together. When exposed to temperature changes then the metal strip bends to indicate an equivalent of the temperature change on a scale. The electrical thermometers are categorized into thermocouple and resistances thermometers. The thermocouple thermometer works on the principle that the resistance of a material is directly proportional to its temperature. The resistance thermometer operates using two metals; one of the metals remains in the ice whereas the other one is connected to the system whose temperature is to be measures. The thermocouple converts the heat into electric energy that produces a voltage that varies with the temperature. The gas thermometers utilize hydrogen, helium or nitrogen. These Qualitywell thermometers are categorized into constant pressure thermometers and constant volume thermometers. The technology that is used works on the principle that the gases expand when they are subjected to an increase in temperature. The temperature will be determined by measuring the change in volume of the gas. There are numerous Qualitywell thermometers that you can use. The one that you select should be designed for the type of system that you want to measure for accurate readings.

Why the Accuracy of Bimetal Thermometers is Critical to the Food Industry

Bimetal thermometers rely on the principle that different metals expand at different rates when exposed to heat. By bonding two different metals together to make a bimetallic strip, it becomes more sensitive to small temperature changes. Most of the bimetal strips use high thermal expansion alloy like steel or stainless steel coupled with low thermal expansion ally such as Invar.Two construction methods for the bimetallic stripsSpiral strip – the bimetallic strip is coiled into a spiral attached to a dial that indicates temperature.Cantilever strip – the bimetallic strips are bonded together in a cantilever. Deflection is used to indicate temperature.Most commonly the strip are coiled into the thermometer and it will get larger or smaller depending upon the temperature change and will directly move the needle on the face of the dial to indicate temperature. Bimetal thermometers are cost effective as they do not require power – you only need to read the temperature measurement on the dial. For industrial applications, the bimetal thermometers offer large dials for easy reading and made from durable stainless steel construction. Dampened and silicone-filled bimetal thermometers provide accurate and reliable temperature read-outs in high vibration settings like manufacturing plants. Aside from the bimetal thermometers used for refrigerators, ovens and furnaces, there are penetration bimetal thermometers for food processing and production.Ranges and accuracy of bimetal thermometers                               In general the bimetal thermometer is considered to be very reliable and accurate particularly for home thermostats. A small pocket thermometer used to test the temperature in an air conditioning system or cooking has a dial of about an inch in diameter but with a temperature range from 0 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit and marked off in two degree increments. Larger units with 2, 3 and 5 “dial faces will typically be accurate to 1% of the span of the unit. Ranges as high as 1000 degrees Fahrenheit are available however those within the 500 degree Fahrenheit ranges are more common.The critical role of bimetal thermometers in the food industryThe most common thermometer used in the food industry is the bimetallic stemmed thermometer that is capable of measuring temperatures from 0oF to 220oF (-18oC to 104oC). Among its many important features is the adjustable calibration nut for accuracy, easy-to-read numbered temperature markings, and the dimple to mark the end of the sensing area with accuracy up to +/-2oF or 1 degree Centigrade. Bimetal thermometers play a big role in food safety and food quality as they manage both time and temperature. The bimetal thermometer can be the most single important tool that can protect food.

How to replace a heating pressure/temperature gauge?

Watch out: the actual gauge replacement itself is not usually technical difficult as long as the gauge mounting port on the boiler has not become rust damaged. But there are some serious pitfalls to watch out for - enough that for most people I'd recommend having the job done by a trained heating service tech, particularly because you might have difficulty purging all air out of the system after you get the gauge installed.Purchase an OEM replacement part so that we won't waste time trying to jury-rig something that does not fit on your boiler.ORPurchase a generic replacement boiler gauge: Examine the original gauge carefully to note its operating range and importantly, the size of the pipe-treaded tapping into which the replacement guage will mount. You should be able to find a generic standard or an OEM replacement gauge set from your local heating supplier or from the boiler manufacturer. With the new gauge checked for a match, prepared with teflon tape or pipe dope as needed, the general procedure that an HVAC tech would follow would be as follows:Turn off electrical power to the boiler - just using the service switch at the boiler should be fineLet the heating system completely cool down to room temperatureIf there are valves that isolate the various zones, close them (that may save leaking air into the zones and leaving them airbound).Close the water supply valve to the boiler - usually the boiler water shutoff is just ahead of the automatic water feederAttach a drain hose to the boiler drain and run it outside or to a floor drainOpen the boiler drain to drain water pressure off of the system.

How does digital pressure gauge work?

Digital pressure gauges use pressure transducers to provide a reliable, high accuracy reading on an attached digital display. Our display takes the signal from the transducer and processes it according to your settings to give you a pressure reading in the unit of measure of your choosing - adjusting it for activated features like tare or peak hold.Unlike analog, or dial, pressure gauges, digital gauges are built for reliability in demanding conditions. Dial gauges require constant re-calibration and repair. One major dial gauge manufacturer estimates that in a typical plant, 25% of dial gauges need immediate replacement, and another 40% need corrective action. It’s a mess caused by inadequacies inherent in analog gauges.On the other hand, digital pressure gauges are inherently durable. Especially our gauges. They’re built to withstand the tough stuff, like vibration, over pressure, water hammer, etc.There is one moving part in a digital pressure gauge - the diaphragm. It’s a thin metal (316L SS) layer with an electric circuit attached to it’s back. As the diaphragm flexes under the pressure, the resistance on the circuit changes in direct proportion to the applied pressure. This is known as piezoresistive technology, and the circuit is called a Wheatstone bridge.The diaphragm is definitely thin, and needs to be handled with care. But its designed to take the even pressure that comes when installed. In fact, it can handle an over pressure 2X it’s full scale and still operate normally.In contrast, a dial gauge is all mechanical, full of moving parts and small gears. They are especially prone to over pressure and vibration. It doesn’t take much to send them to the re-calibration lab, or to break them altogether.Vibration is a common problem in process plants, and pumps are a major source of that vibration. Monitoring pumps is critical (more on that later), but whatever gauges will be installed on or near pumps need to be able to handle the vibration. Our digital pressure gauges work perfectly in vibrating environments. Unlike a dial gauge, they’re legible under vibration as well.In extreme environments, the display can be tethered to the transducer with a cable to prevent additional wear and tear on the electronics, further increasing the gauge’s lifespan. Tethering the gauge also increases it’s operating temperature, and is generally a good way to remove the electronics from process stresses.

What Are the Normal Hot and Cold Operating Pressures of Residential Hydronic Heating Boiler

On a residential heating boiler the automatic water-feeder/pressure reducing valve that automatically provides makeup water to the heating boiler if pressure drops below 12 psi. So 12 psi is the typical "cold" pressure for residential boilers.If your building is taller than two floors, the installer may have needed to boost the starting "cold" water pressure for your boiler to overcome the hot water distribution piping head pressure - otherwise your heating circulators may not be able to circulate hot water.At PUMP, WATER PRESSURE BOOSTING we explain the relationship between building height and water pressure, and we illustrate the water pressure decrease in building water supply piping with building height. But a look at the basement water pressures in this illustration also explains the pressures that a basement located hot water heating circulator pump has to overcome.12 psi is for typical U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal cold temperature starting pressure. U.K. and european heating systems should be pressurized to between 1 and 1.5 bar - cold.20 psi is typical for U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal hot operating temperature, up to just under 30 psi, depending on the high-limit temperature setting on the boiler limit control. If we set the boiler high-limit much over 210, on many residential systems the system pressure will exceed 30 psi and we'll see water leaking from the pressure/temperature relief valve - ultimately an unsafe condition.Pressure and Temperature gauge on heating boilers: this gauge displays the heating boiler internal pressure and temperature.Typical pressure for a residential boiler serving a two story home would show 12 psi cold, and less than 30 psi hot. Over 30 psi boiler pressure will cause the pressure relief valve to open.Typical hydronic heating boiler operating temperature settings are LO-120-160 HI-180-200 °F. At 200 °F. we'll see should see pressure under 30 psi.Typical operating temperature observed at the gauge will be below the high, and can be as low as nighttime room temperature in non-heating season if no tankless coil is in use. The temperature/pressure gauge may help in checking for normal conditions before and during boiler operation. However the gauge can be wrong!)

Hot Water (Hydronic) Boiler Temperature & Pressure Gauge Guide

Pressure and Temperature gauge on hot water or hydronic heating boilers: this gauge displays the heating boiler internal pressure and temperature.Typical pressure for a residential boiler serving a two story home would show 12 psi cold, and less than 30 psi hot. Over 30 psi boiler pressure will cause the pressure relief valve to open.Typical operating temperature settings on a boiler call for a Low temperature (boiler cut-in) between 120 and 160 °F.Typical operating temperatures on a hydronic boiler call for a high temperature (boiler cuts off) of 180-200 °F.Over 200 degrees F. we're at risk of spilling at the pressure temperature relief valve.Typical operating temperature observed at the gauge will be below the high, and can be as low as nighttime room temperature in non-heating season if no tankless coil is in use.The temperature/pressure gauge may help in checking for normal conditions before and during boiler operation.However the boiler pressure or temperature gauge can be wrong!This boiler pressure and temperature gauge shows a typical in-boiler pressure of under 20 psi, and a temperature of about 190 °F. (The boiler had just cut off on a heating cycle.)

How to Use a Digital Thermometer

Body temperature is a great indicator of something being amiss so it is important to know how to use a digital thermometer properly. Being aware of the necessary steps will help you to determine what type of illness that you are dealing with.Step 1 – PrepareEven if the digital thermometer has been stored prior to use, it is prudent to give it a clean before using it again. This can either be done in a solution of soapy water or by wiping it with a cloth that has been sprayed with an antibacterial solution. Wipe it with a paper tissue after it has been cleaned. This will ensure that any errant particles or germs remaining on the surface will be removed.Step 2 – Switch OnSwitch on the digital thermometer before putting it near the mouth to make sure that it is working properly. The LCD screen should read "0" when it is initially switched on. If this does not occur or the screen remains blank, you may find that the battery needs to be replaced. Check the instruction manual to ensure that you get the correct replacement battery and that you fit it correctly. Only use the thermometer when the starting reading is correct.Step 3 – PositionPlace the thermometer in the mouth by laying the tip on a middle point at the back of the tongue before closing the lips around it to hold the length of it. Avoid gripping it between the teeth as it is unnecessary and can cause the thermometer to lift off the tongue.Step 4 – Take TemperatureOnce the digital thermometer is in the correct position, you will be able to press the button to make the appliance read the temperature. Depending on the model, this can take anything from a few seconds to a few minutes. Similarly, the model you are using will dictate whether it demonstrates its completion of the task with a beep or whether the result is simply displayed. At this point, you will be able to remove the thermometer from the mouth so that you can read the temperature.You may be able to set the temperature according to Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F). The body’s normal temperature is 37 degrees C or 98.6 degrees F so you must take immediate action if the reading is above or below this. Even 1 degree above normal temperature can be the sign of a fever, while anything lower means that the patient’s body is failing to regulate its temperature. They will need to be kept warm with other methods until the underlying cause is found and rectified.

What is an Electric Thermometer?

An electric thermometer uses electricity to measure temperature. An electric resistor known as a thermoresistor is the key to the electric thermometer. This sensor's resistance is changed by a fluctuation in temperature. A small computer calculates the change and converts the readout to temperature. This technology allows much faster temperature taking at the doctor's office as well as on a building's outside temperature reading display.Unlike mercury-type thermometers, the electric thermometer can display the temperature in a matter of seconds. The reading from the electric thermometer is considered much more accurate since the typical thermometer is difficult to leave under the tongue for the entire length of reading and testing. By opening the mouth to breathe or even to simply adjust the way the thermometer is sitting under the tongue, the reading can be flawed. By speeding up the process, the reading from the electric variety is more accurate.The many uses of the electric thermometer are not limited to the doctor's office. This thermometer can be used to activate other electronic devices at a predetermined temperature. Furnace controls in the common home as well as cooling devices within the corner grocery store can both be controlled by an electric thermometer. When the thermometer detects the proper temperature, it sends a signal to another on or off switch that either engages or disengages, turning the cooling controls on or off. The benefit is the automatic and very accurate control of the system as compared to timers or dependency on human interaction.In a manufacturing setting, the thermometer makes it possible to control heating temperatures of products as well as cooling fluid temperatures to an exact degree. In some critical manufacturing process such as heat treating metal, a fluctuation of the most minimal amount can mean the difference in a quality item or scrap. The same goes with cooling fluids. By maintaining the constant temperature of a cooling fluid, a machine can have a much longer life span and deliver high-quality work with a minimum of breakdown.An everyday use that affects many people in a much more personal manner can be found in the kitchen. Advancements in the electric thermometer have made it possible for a chef to cook a roast to perfection each and every time. By taking a quick internal temperature reading from an electronic thermometer, the chef can determine the proper cooking time and temperature of the meat. The fast read allows the chef to remove the meat from the fire in the proper time to avoid over-cooking and also ensures that an undercooked product never leaves the kitchen.

How to verify a boiler pressure gauge

The majority of boiler pressure gauges are defective or inaccurate.When dealing with boiler pressure problems, the FIRST thing that must be done is to verify the accuracy of the pressure gauge. A test gauge is easy to construct.What you need:1. A 0-30 (best) or 0-50 (OK) PSI pressure gauge. Higher pressure gauges are useless for this application as they lack the resolution needed for a proper reading. Gauges can be purchased for $10-$25. The best place to find a suitable gauge is a REAL plumbing supply, or swimming pool supply house. (or even a Beer homebrewing supply!)2. A way to adapt this new gauge to a Garden Hose Thread (GHT).Here is one way:This is a 3/4" FGHT (Female Garden Hose Thread) to 1/4" FIPS (Female Iron Pipe Size) adapter. This part will run about $6 or so.Your gauge should have a 1/4" MIPS thread and will screw into this fitting.If you have a well stocked junque boxe, you can put something like this together.This is an end of an old washing machine hose and some fittings to adapt the gauge.When you have your test gauge, simply screw it onto any one of the drain valves and open the valve to read the pressure.