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What is PSI?

Open your car's glove compartment, pull out your owner's manual, and look up “tires." You should find details including front and rear “PSI" listings. PSI stands for pounds per square inch. This number is determined by your vehicle's manufacturer, and it's how you can tell if your tires are properly inflated.PSI is based on your vehicle's:Total weight and size.Towing weight capability.Recommended tire size.It's important to note that you should always use the pressure recommended by your vehicle's manufacturer to ensure optimal vehicle performance. This means you need to ensure that your tires are appropriate for your vehicle, and that the PSI recommended for the tire matches what your vehicle's manufacturer recommends for your car.

How to Check Your Tire Pressure

How to Check Your Tire PressureChecking tire pressure is easy. You can do it right at home or at the gas station. Just be sure you check the pressure when your tires are cold, or haven't been driven in several hours. This will give you the most accurate reading.The most important piece of equipment you need is an accurate tire pressure gauge. You can find battery-operated digital gauges, or more traditional stick-type gauge found at most gas stations. A good gauge shouldn't set you back more than $15—a worthwhile investment for a longer life for your tires.Make sure you have your manufacturer's PSI handy when you're checking your tire pressure, and then follow these steps:Remove the end caps on your tires' air valves (don't lose them!).Place the tire pressure gauge into the valve stem and press down quickly to get a reading.Check the PSI reading. Compare that to your vehicle's recommended PSI.It can often be tricky to get the gauge to press fully onto the valve, resulting in an off reading—so take a few readings to eliminate any anomalies.If the reading is above the recommendation, push in the valve to let out some air (you might have to do this a few times to get it right).If the PSI reading is below the recommendation, fill your tire with air until you reach the ideal level (this may also take a few tries).In all, checking the air pressure on your tires should take just a few minutes and is well worth the savings and protection you'll gain!

When to Check Tire Pressure?

Even brand new tires with minimal wear and tear lose air constantly. Factors that can affect tire pressure include:Hot or cold temperatures.Driving distance.Towing or carrying added weight in your vehicle.Most tire and vehicle manufacturers recommend checking your tire's pressure each month, as they can lose multiple pounds of pressure within that time from simple daily use.In addition, it's important to check pressure as temperatures heat up. Tires react quickly to changes in temperature, and a rise in heat can cause rapid pressure loss.Leaky valve systems, low leaking punctures, and other often hidden damage can also decrease air pressure—all the more reason to check your tires regularly.

Why Is Tire Pressure Important?

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, under-inflated tires have a higher risk of damage and failure. Not only will they wear out faster if under-inflated, but faster deterioration can also lead to reduced control of your vehicle, tire blowouts, and crashes.In addition to safety, there's also an environmental and economic benefit to keeping your tires full of air. Gas mileage is reduced by .2% for every 1 PSI (pound per square inch) your tire pressure drops below the recommended level. By keeping your tires inflated to the proper pressure, you could save yourself up to 3% in gas mileage, depending on your vehicle and driving habits.Not only are you saving more money in reduced visits to the gas pump, but you're also ensuring our planet continues to grow and thrive for drivers of the future.

What the Signs that You Need New Tires?

By checking tire pressure once a month, you'll get a good idea how they are performing. If your tires are fairly new and continue to leak air, you should consult your dealer or mechanic. You may have a faulty valve or other damage that is difficult to detect... which could unfortunately result in the need to replace the tires completely. But with proactive maintenance, you could catch an issue before it becomes a problem, and just end up needing a small repair.For more suggestions to keep your car running its best, check out our library of Vehicle Maintenance Tips

Why the Accuracy of Bimetal Thermometers is Critical to the Food Industry

Bimetal thermometers rely on the principle that different metals expand at different rates when exposed to heat. By bonding two different metals together to make a bimetallic strip, it becomes more sensitive to small temperature changes. Most of the bimetal strips use high thermal expansion alloy like steel or stainless steel coupled with low thermal expansion ally such as Invar.Two construction methods for the bimetallic stripsSpiral strip – the bimetallic strip is coiled into a spiral attached to a dial that indicates temperature.Cantilever strip – the bimetallic strips are bonded together in a cantilever. Deflection is used to indicate temperature.Most commonly the strip are coiled into the thermometer and it will get larger or smaller depending upon the temperature change and will directly move the needle on the face of the dial to indicate temperature. Bimetal thermometers are cost effective as they do not require power – you only need to read the temperature measurement on the dial. For industrial applications, the bimetal thermometers offer large dials for easy reading and made from durable stainless steel construction. Dampened and silicone-filled bimetal thermometers provide accurate and reliable temperature read-outs in high vibration settings like manufacturing plants. Aside from the bimetal thermometers used for refrigerators, ovens and furnaces, there are penetration bimetal thermometers for food processing and production.Ranges and accuracy of bimetal thermometers                               In general the bimetal thermometer is considered to be very reliable and accurate particularly for home thermostats. A small pocket thermometer used to test the temperature in an air conditioning system or cooking has a dial of about an inch in diameter but with a temperature range from 0 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit and marked off in two degree increments. Larger units with 2, 3 and 5 “dial faces will typically be accurate to 1% of the span of the unit. Ranges as high as 1000 degrees Fahrenheit are available however those within the 500 degree Fahrenheit ranges are more common.The critical role of bimetal thermometers in the food industryThe most common thermometer used in the food industry is the bimetallic stemmed thermometer that is capable of measuring temperatures from 0oF to 220oF (-18oC to 104oC). Among its many important features is the adjustable calibration nut for accuracy, easy-to-read numbered temperature markings, and the dimple to mark the end of the sensing area with accuracy up to +/-2oF or 1 degree Centigrade. Bimetal thermometers play a big role in food safety and food quality as they manage both time and temperature. The bimetal thermometer can be the most single important tool that can protect food.

How does digital pressure gauge work?

Digital pressure gauges use pressure transducers to provide a reliable, high accuracy reading on an attached digital display. Our display takes the signal from the transducer and processes it according to your settings to give you a pressure reading in the unit of measure of your choosing - adjusting it for activated features like tare or peak hold.Unlike analog, or dial, pressure gauges, digital gauges are built for reliability in demanding conditions. Dial gauges require constant re-calibration and repair. One major dial gauge manufacturer estimates that in a typical plant, 25% of dial gauges need immediate replacement, and another 40% need corrective action. It’s a mess caused by inadequacies inherent in analog gauges.On the other hand, digital pressure gauges are inherently durable. Especially our gauges. They’re built to withstand the tough stuff, like vibration, over pressure, water hammer, etc.There is one moving part in a digital pressure gauge - the diaphragm. It’s a thin metal (316L SS) layer with an electric circuit attached to it’s back. As the diaphragm flexes under the pressure, the resistance on the circuit changes in direct proportion to the applied pressure. This is known as piezoresistive technology, and the circuit is called a Wheatstone bridge.The diaphragm is definitely thin, and needs to be handled with care. But its designed to take the even pressure that comes when installed. In fact, it can handle an over pressure 2X it’s full scale and still operate normally.In contrast, a dial gauge is all mechanical, full of moving parts and small gears. They are especially prone to over pressure and vibration. It doesn’t take much to send them to the re-calibration lab, or to break them altogether.Vibration is a common problem in process plants, and pumps are a major source of that vibration. Monitoring pumps is critical (more on that later), but whatever gauges will be installed on or near pumps need to be able to handle the vibration. Our digital pressure gauges work perfectly in vibrating environments. Unlike a dial gauge, they’re legible under vibration as well.In extreme environments, the display can be tethered to the transducer with a cable to prevent additional wear and tear on the electronics, further increasing the gauge’s lifespan. Tethering the gauge also increases it’s operating temperature, and is generally a good way to remove the electronics from process stresses.

What Are the Normal Hot and Cold Operating Pressures of Residential Hydronic Heating Boiler

On a residential heating boiler the automatic water-feeder/pressure reducing valve that automatically provides makeup water to the heating boiler if pressure drops below 12 psi. So 12 psi is the typical "cold" pressure for residential boilers.If your building is taller than two floors, the installer may have needed to boost the starting "cold" water pressure for your boiler to overcome the hot water distribution piping head pressure - otherwise your heating circulators may not be able to circulate hot water.At PUMP, WATER PRESSURE BOOSTING we explain the relationship between building height and water pressure, and we illustrate the water pressure decrease in building water supply piping with building height. But a look at the basement water pressures in this illustration also explains the pressures that a basement located hot water heating circulator pump has to overcome.12 psi is for typical U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal cold temperature starting pressure. U.K. and european heating systems should be pressurized to between 1 and 1.5 bar - cold.20 psi is typical for U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal hot operating temperature, up to just under 30 psi, depending on the high-limit temperature setting on the boiler limit control. If we set the boiler high-limit much over 210, on many residential systems the system pressure will exceed 30 psi and we'll see water leaking from the pressure/temperature relief valve - ultimately an unsafe condition.Pressure and Temperature gauge on heating boilers: this gauge displays the heating boiler internal pressure and temperature.Typical pressure for a residential boiler serving a two story home would show 12 psi cold, and less than 30 psi hot. Over 30 psi boiler pressure will cause the pressure relief valve to open.Typical hydronic heating boiler operating temperature settings are LO-120-160 HI-180-200 °F. At 200 °F. we'll see should see pressure under 30 psi.Typical operating temperature observed at the gauge will be below the high, and can be as low as nighttime room temperature in non-heating season if no tankless coil is in use. The temperature/pressure gauge may help in checking for normal conditions before and during boiler operation. However the gauge can be wrong!)

Hot Water (Hydronic) Boiler Temperature & Pressure Gauge Guide

Pressure and Temperature gauge on hot water or hydronic heating boilers: this gauge displays the heating boiler internal pressure and temperature.Typical pressure for a residential boiler serving a two story home would show 12 psi cold, and less than 30 psi hot. Over 30 psi boiler pressure will cause the pressure relief valve to open.Typical operating temperature settings on a boiler call for a Low temperature (boiler cut-in) between 120 and 160 °F.Typical operating temperatures on a hydronic boiler call for a high temperature (boiler cuts off) of 180-200 °F.Over 200 degrees F. we're at risk of spilling at the pressure temperature relief valve.Typical operating temperature observed at the gauge will be below the high, and can be as low as nighttime room temperature in non-heating season if no tankless coil is in use.The temperature/pressure gauge may help in checking for normal conditions before and during boiler operation.However the boiler pressure or temperature gauge can be wrong!This boiler pressure and temperature gauge shows a typical in-boiler pressure of under 20 psi, and a temperature of about 190 °F. (The boiler had just cut off on a heating cycle.)

How to Use a Digital Thermometer

Body temperature is a great indicator of something being amiss so it is important to know how to use a digital thermometer properly. Being aware of the necessary steps will help you to determine what type of illness that you are dealing with.Step 1 – PrepareEven if the digital thermometer has been stored prior to use, it is prudent to give it a clean before using it again. This can either be done in a solution of soapy water or by wiping it with a cloth that has been sprayed with an antibacterial solution. Wipe it with a paper tissue after it has been cleaned. This will ensure that any errant particles or germs remaining on the surface will be removed.Step 2 – Switch OnSwitch on the digital thermometer before putting it near the mouth to make sure that it is working properly. The LCD screen should read "0" when it is initially switched on. If this does not occur or the screen remains blank, you may find that the battery needs to be replaced. Check the instruction manual to ensure that you get the correct replacement battery and that you fit it correctly. Only use the thermometer when the starting reading is correct.Step 3 – PositionPlace the thermometer in the mouth by laying the tip on a middle point at the back of the tongue before closing the lips around it to hold the length of it. Avoid gripping it between the teeth as it is unnecessary and can cause the thermometer to lift off the tongue.Step 4 – Take TemperatureOnce the digital thermometer is in the correct position, you will be able to press the button to make the appliance read the temperature. Depending on the model, this can take anything from a few seconds to a few minutes. Similarly, the model you are using will dictate whether it demonstrates its completion of the task with a beep or whether the result is simply displayed. At this point, you will be able to remove the thermometer from the mouth so that you can read the temperature.You may be able to set the temperature according to Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F). The body’s normal temperature is 37 degrees C or 98.6 degrees F so you must take immediate action if the reading is above or below this. Even 1 degree above normal temperature can be the sign of a fever, while anything lower means that the patient’s body is failing to regulate its temperature. They will need to be kept warm with other methods until the underlying cause is found and rectified.

What is an Electric Thermometer?

An electric thermometer uses electricity to measure temperature. An electric resistor known as a thermoresistor is the key to the electric thermometer. This sensor's resistance is changed by a fluctuation in temperature. A small computer calculates the change and converts the readout to temperature. This technology allows much faster temperature taking at the doctor's office as well as on a building's outside temperature reading display.Unlike mercury-type thermometers, the electric thermometer can display the temperature in a matter of seconds. The reading from the electric thermometer is considered much more accurate since the typical thermometer is difficult to leave under the tongue for the entire length of reading and testing. By opening the mouth to breathe or even to simply adjust the way the thermometer is sitting under the tongue, the reading can be flawed. By speeding up the process, the reading from the electric variety is more accurate.The many uses of the electric thermometer are not limited to the doctor's office. This thermometer can be used to activate other electronic devices at a predetermined temperature. Furnace controls in the common home as well as cooling devices within the corner grocery store can both be controlled by an electric thermometer. When the thermometer detects the proper temperature, it sends a signal to another on or off switch that either engages or disengages, turning the cooling controls on or off. The benefit is the automatic and very accurate control of the system as compared to timers or dependency on human interaction.In a manufacturing setting, the thermometer makes it possible to control heating temperatures of products as well as cooling fluid temperatures to an exact degree. In some critical manufacturing process such as heat treating metal, a fluctuation of the most minimal amount can mean the difference in a quality item or scrap. The same goes with cooling fluids. By maintaining the constant temperature of a cooling fluid, a machine can have a much longer life span and deliver high-quality work with a minimum of breakdown.An everyday use that affects many people in a much more personal manner can be found in the kitchen. Advancements in the electric thermometer have made it possible for a chef to cook a roast to perfection each and every time. By taking a quick internal temperature reading from an electronic thermometer, the chef can determine the proper cooking time and temperature of the meat. The fast read allows the chef to remove the meat from the fire in the proper time to avoid over-cooking and also ensures that an undercooked product never leaves the kitchen.

How to verify a boiler pressure gauge

The majority of boiler pressure gauges are defective or inaccurate.When dealing with boiler pressure problems, the FIRST thing that must be done is to verify the accuracy of the pressure gauge. A test gauge is easy to construct.What you need:1. A 0-30 (best) or 0-50 (OK) PSI pressure gauge. Higher pressure gauges are useless for this application as they lack the resolution needed for a proper reading. Gauges can be purchased for $10-$25. The best place to find a suitable gauge is a REAL plumbing supply, or swimming pool supply house. (or even a Beer homebrewing supply!)2. A way to adapt this new gauge to a Garden Hose Thread (GHT).Here is one way:This is a 3/4" FGHT (Female Garden Hose Thread) to 1/4" FIPS (Female Iron Pipe Size) adapter. This part will run about $6 or so.Your gauge should have a 1/4" MIPS thread and will screw into this fitting.If you have a well stocked junque boxe, you can put something like this together.This is an end of an old washing machine hose and some fittings to adapt the gauge.When you have your test gauge, simply screw it onto any one of the drain valves and open the valve to read the pressure.

How to select a thermometer?

Bimetal thermometers use two strips of different metals to convert temperature into mechanical displacement. The different metals, often steel and copper or steel and brass, are joined together throughout their length and will expand at different rates as they are heated. He difference in expansion will cause the strip to bend one way if heated or the other if cooled. This movement correlates to the actual temperature and moves an indicator along the scale. The metal strips can be lengthened for sensitivity and are often coiled for compactness.Bimetal thermometers are inexpensive, simple, and durable. As purely mechanical devices, they display only the current temperature on their dial. They can be accurate to about 1% full span. They are often used in food and beverage preparation, process temperature measurement, wastewater treatment, boiler systems, and other places.ThermometersThermometers are devices that measure temperature or a temperature gradient using a variety of different principles. Temperature is simply the numerical measurement of hot and cold—which has great importance in a wide variety of applications. Temperature affects our comfort, cooks our food and is critical to making many products upon which we rely. Given the extreme importance of temperature across so many aspects of modern life, thermometers are a familiar tool to us.Temperature is the most commonly measured parameter in commercial and industrial settings. Industries as diverse as food processing, pharmaceuticals, cold storage, paper manufacturing, and others absolutely rely on process temperatures being within a certain range. Though there are many temperature sensing options, thermometers provide an inexpensive, versatile and reliable choice.Characteristic of ThermometersThough some thermometers rely on sophisticated technology such as infrared sensing to make non-contact temperature measurements, thermometers for contact measurement—those we are describing here—are much simpler, and rely on just two important elements: a temperature sensor and a scale. Temperature sensors range from the bulb on a mercury thermometer to RTD or thermocouples for more advanced thermometers. Likewise, the scale can be simply a series of accurately placed markings printed on the side of a mercury thermometer or a digital readout capable of advanced calculations or data logging.ScaleThe scale of a thermometer is important. More than just a series of digits placed along the edge of a thermometer, scale is an internationally agreed upon value that corresponds to specific temperatures. Though an individual thermometer can measure the temperature, there is no way to compare that to the readings of another thermometer unless they conform to an agreed upon scale.Temperature scales are based upon fixed points such as the freezing and boiling points of water. The most recent attempt to fix the values of temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). It extends from 0.65 K (−272.5 °C; −458.5 °F) to approximately 1,358 K (1,085 °C; 1,985 °F).Temperature scales differ in two ways: the point chosen as zero degrees, and the magnitudes of incremental units or degrees on the scale. Common temperature scales include the Celsius scale (°C) which chooses the freezing point of water as 0°C and defines the magnitude of degrees such that 100°C is the boiling point of water. In the United States the Fahrenheit scale is commonly used. Another common temperature scale is Kelvin which is usually used in scientific applications.CalibrationLike most measuring devices, thermometers need to be calibrated periodically to maintain accuracy. Calibration often consists of calibrating them with other, calibrated thermometers or by checking them against known fixed points on the temperature scale such as the freezing or boiling points of water. Since the sensors typically used in thermometers cannot be adjusted, any adjustments following a calibration need to be made to the scale, either through a manual or electronic adjustment depending upon the type of thermometer.Things to consider when selecting a thermometer:What level accuracy is needed? Over what temperature range?Which scale is preferred?Will it measure at the spot or remotely?In what type of environment will the thermometer operate?Are multiple channels needed?Will the thermometer be used for food service? Will it require hygienic approvals?

How is the water thermometer invented ?

How is the water thermometer invented ?The water thermometer has been around for centuries, but not many people are aware of the origins of this instrument. The following is a brief synopsis of the origin and development of the water thermometer.OriginsThe first water thermometer was created during the 16th century. In the year 1593, Galileo Galilei did the existing thermoscope one step better and created a basic water thermometer. This newer version was the first type of thermometer to allow variations in temperature. Galileo found that, if he used liquid that was less dense than water, he could suspend those liquids in a vial of water, which would rise as the temperature increased.Galileo was able to take the information he discovered and develop a model of a thermoscope that used fine droplets of alcohol. These droplets maintained their cohesion in the water and would rise to the top as the temperature of the water slowly increased. There are those that believe the use of alcohol by Galileo later inspired the use of mercury.Modern ApplicationsWhile mercury thermometers are the norm in medical circles, the water thermometer is still very much alive.One of the most common uses of a water thermometer today is testing the temperature of water in the home. One practical application is especially important for new parents. Using a water thermometer to test the temperature of bath water will ensure that an infant is not accidentally subjected to a scalding bath. Along with checking the bath water, the thermometer can also be used to maintain a check on the temperature of the water in the household water heater.Persons who enjoy fishing may also find a water thermometer useful. By checking on the temperature of the lake or river, it is possible to determine what type of fish could be biting. Since some fish are more active at different temperature levels, this information can be the difference between a successful trip and an empty cooler.Teachers often use a water thermometer to teach students about the process of water expansion versus mercury expansion, noting that the two substances tend to react differently upon reaching the point of 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. As the students grasp the expansion process as it relates to different liquids, the teacher can then employ the principle in different scenarios. From this perspective, the water thermometer continues to be an important teaching tool.